Will you give detailed information about the life and personality of Hz. Abu Bakr (ra)?
Dear Brother / Sister,
Hz. Abu Bakr as-Siddiq (571-634) is the first male, free person to believe after Hz. Muhammad (pbuh) started to proclaim the religion of Islam; he is also the first one of the four caliphs and the ten people who were given the glad tiding of Paradise. He is the great Companion who is known with the nicknames Jamiul Quran (Compiler of the Quran), as-Siddiq (the Honest/Veracious), al-Atiq (the Freed One).
He is mentioned in the Quran as “…they two were in the cave…” (at-Tawba, 9/40) since he was together with the Messenger of Yüce Allah (pbuh) during the Migration. His real name was Abdulkaaba; it is reported that the Messenger of Yüce Allah (pbuh) gave him the name Abdullah after Islam. He was called with the nickname “atiq” meaning freed from torture and “siddiq” because he was honest, loyal, reliable and chaste. He became famous for the name Abu Bakr meaning “the father of a young camel”.
Abu Bakr is from the tribe called Sons of Taym; his lineage unites with the Messenger of Yüce Allah with his ancestor Murra b. Ka’b. His mother’s name is Ummul-Khayr Salma, and his father’s name is Abu Quhafa Uthman. His full family name is Abdullah b. Uthman b. Amir b. Amir… b. Murra …at-Taymi. All of his family members became Muslims except his son Abdurrahman, who remained as a polytheist up to the Battle of Badr. His father Abu Quhafa saw Abu Bakr’s caliphate and death. It is stated that Hz. Abu Bakr (ra) is one or three years younger than the Messenger of Yüce Allah (pbuh).
Hz. Abu Bakr, who was a respectable and honest person that did not worship idols, who did not have any idols in his house and whowas a “hanif” merchant, did not leave the Prophet (pbuh) until he died. He spent all of his wealth and earnings for Islam; he led a plain life.
Hz. Abu Bakr was born in Makkah two years and a few months after the Incident of the Elephant in 571; he was known for his nice characteristics and chastity. Although drinking alcohol was a very common custom in the Era of Jahiliyya, he did not drink any alcohol. He was one of the notables of Makkah at that time and he was famous for the sciences of genealogy and news. He bought and sold fabrics and clothes; his capital was forty thousand dirhams, most of which he spent for Islam.
Abu Bakr (r.a.), who believed in the Messenger of Yüce Allah (pbuh), started to convey the message of Islam. Most of the first Muslims like Uthman b. Affan, Zubayr b. Awwam, Abdurrahman b. Awf, Sa’d b. Abi Waqqas and Talha b. Ubaydullah, who made great efforts to elevate Islam, became Muslims as a result of the call of Abu Bakr.
Hz. Abu Bakr (ra) did not leave the Messenger of Yüce Allah (pbuh) throughout his life; they established a great friendship when they were children. The Messenger of Yüce Allah (pbuh) preferred his view related to many issues. The Prophet (pbuh), who consulted his Companions about general and private important issues, consulted Abu Bakr related to some private issues. (Ibn Khaldun, Muqaddima, 206). Arabs called him “the vizier of the Prophet”.
The Sons of Taym tribe had an important place in Makkah. They were engaged in commerce and were known for their social contacts and broad cultural qualities. Hz. Abu Bakr’s father was from the notables of Makkah. Hz. Abu Bakr was a person who was known by his high ethics and who was loved even in Era of Jahiliyyah; he was in charge of conducting the payments of blood-money and bail called “ashnaq” in Makkah. He had a great friendship with Muhammad (pbuh). They often met and talked about the unity of Yüce Allah, the situation of Makkah’s polytheists and trade. They were both against the Jahiliyyah culture; they did not write poetry and they did not like poetry, they would rather meditate.
His adopting Islam
When Hz. Abu Bakr met Hz. Muhammad (pbuh), who was returning from Mount Hira, the Messenger of Yüce Allah told him that he was “the Messenger of Yüce Allah” and told him about the verses that started with
“Read in the name of thy Lord and Cherisher, Who created” (al-Alaq, 96/1),
he immediately said to the Messenger of Yüce Allah (pbuh), “I believe in the oneness of Yüce Allah and that you are His Messenger.” He is the first person after Hz. Khadijah to believe in the Messenger of Yüce Allah (pbuh). During the first days of conveying the message of Islam, everybody whom the Prophet (pbuh) talked hesitated first but Hz. Abu Bakr accepted Islam without any doubt and hesitation. Hz. Prophet even said, “If the belief of all people were put on one scale of a balance and Abu Bakr’s belief on the other, his belief would outweigh.” Abu Bakr, the believer, devoted himself to Islam and was always among the first to do good deeds and charity.
In the period of Makkah, Hz. Abu Bakr tried to bring the people of strong tribes to Islam; on the other hand, he protected the weak people and the slaves who were exposed to the tributes of the polytheists; he used his fortune to buy and free the slaves that were tortured. Bilal, Habbab, Lubayna, Abu Fuqayha, Amir, Dhinnira, Nahdiya, Umm Ubays were among them. He himself was attacked by the polytheists in Masjid al-Haram. After Abu Bakr believed, he continued to convey the message of Islam secretly. His mother, his wife, Umm Ruman and his daughter Asma believed but his sons, Abdullah, Abdurrahman and his father Abu Quhafa had not believed yet. He is the person who invited the first Muslims like Uthman b. Affan, Sa’d b. Abi Waqqas, Abdurrahman b. Awf, Zubayr b. Awwam, and Talha b. Ubaydullah to Islam.
After the persecution of the polytheists and the pressures on the Muslims increased, Hz. Prophet (pbuh) told Abu Bakr to migrate to Abyssinia and Abu Bakr set out. However, when he encountered Ibn Dughunna, one of members of a prominent tribe of Makkah in Bark al-Ghimad, Ibn Dughunna told him that he took him under his protection and the two returned to Makkah together. However, Ibn Dughunna, who conditionally patronized Abu Bakr, said that Abu Bakr did not act in accordance with his conditions because he worshipped openly and continued to spread his belief; he asked Abu Bakr to worship secretly. Abu Bakr said that he did not need his protection and that he had not promised him anything. He said, “I am returning you my protection. Yüce Allah’s protection is enough for me.” Thus, Abu Bakr stayed in Makkah for thirteen years. According to the narration of Hz. Aisha, when the Messenger of Yüce Allah (pbuh) received the order to migrate, went to Abu Bakr and told him that they would migrate together, Abu Bakr started to weep for joy. (Ibn Hisham, as-Sirah, II, 485)
When the polytheists heard the incidents of Isra and Miraj and when Hz. Prophet (pbuh) said he went from Makkah to Jerusalem and then to Sidratul-Muntaha in just one night, they told Hz. Abu Bakr about it. He said, “If Muhammad (pbuh) says so, it is true.” After this statement of Hz. Abu Bakr’s, he was given the nickname “Siddiq”, meaning a person who never tells lies, who is honest and who özgü no doubt in his belief. As the Quran puts it, we can say “What a nice friend!” (an-Nisa, 4/69) Thus, those two friends, “Siddiq” and “Amin”, migrated together moving toward the cave in Mount Thawr.
Hz. Abu Bakr entered the cave first and checked it; then, the Prophet (pbuh) entered it. Abu Bakr’s daughter, Asma, had prepared some food for them to eat on the way. When they left Makkah, the polytheists began to look for them by sending their men around. The polytheists of the Quraysh tribe searched Asma’s house under the leadership of Abu Jahl, insulting and beating her.
Hz. Abu Bakr took all his money with him when he set off for the Migration. However, his daughter Asma did not tell the unbelievers where he was and where he was going. The Makkan polytheists who followed their traces reached the Cave of Thawr. Meanwhile, the Messenger of Yüce Allah (pbuh) said, as it is stated in the Qur’an:
“Have no Fear, for Yüce Allah is with us.” (at-Tawba, 9/40)
As a matter of fact, Yüce Allah gave him confidence and supported him with the soldiers whom they could not see; Yüce Allah is powerful and wise. The unbelievers could not find them despite their search for three days. After staying in the cave for three days, the Messenger of Yüce Allah and Abu Bakr headed for Makkah and arrived in Quba.
Abu Bakr narrates the day they stayed in the cave as follows: “I was in the cave with the Messenger of Yüce Allah. I looked up and saw the feet of the Qurayshi spies. Thereupon, I said, ‘O Messenger of Yüce Allah! If some of them bent down and looked, they would definitely see us.’ He said, ‘O Abu Bakr! Keep silent! Is it appropriate to worry when two friends are together with Yüce Allah?’
After staying in Quba for three days, the Messenger of Yüce Allah (pbuh) and Hz. Abu Bakr arrived in Madinah. Hz. Abu Bakr got fever in Madinah. When his fever got worse and he stayed in bed, the Messenger of Yüce Allah (pbuh) prayed for him as follows:
“O Yüce Allah! Make Madinah beloved for us just as You did Makkah beloved and keep fever away from us.”
After the prayer, Hz. Abu Bakr and the other Companions who were ill got well. Meanwhile, Hz. Aisha and Hz. Muhammad got married. Masjid an-Nabawi was built. Some of the expenses were met by Hz. Abu Bakr. When brotherhood was established in Madinah, Haritha b. Zayd became Abu Bakr’s brother.
Hz. Abu Bakr took part in the construction of Masjid an-Nabawi in Madinah. The Messenger of Yüce Allah (pbuh) sent teams called sariyya outside Madinah in order to spread Islam and collect information about the enemies. Hz. Abu Bakr sometimes took part in them. He took part in the battles that the Messenger of Yüce Allah (pbuh) himself fought (Badr, Uhud and Khandaq). He also took part in the expeditions of Muraysi, Qurayza, Khaybar, Makkah, Hunayn and Taif.
The battles that the Messenger of Yüce Allah (pbuh) himself commanded are called ghazwah. Hz. Abu Bakr took part in more than thirty ghazwahs apart from the battles mentioned above. The enemies surrendered without fighting in the ghazwahs of Waddan, Buwat, Badr al-Ula and Ushayra. In all of those ghazwahs, Hz. Abu Bakr was next to the Prophet (pbuh) like his “vizier“.
In the Battle of Badr, Abu Bakr fought against his son, Abdurrahman, when he was on the side of the polytheists. Not only him but also many companions fought against their sons, brothers, fathers and uncles at Badr. The Battle of Badr shows that Muslims kept Islam superior to everything and they killed the polytheists who were their closest relatives without distinguishing them from other people or without thinking of kinship or being the members of the same tribe. While Hamza, one of the uncles of the Messenger of Yüce Allah (pbuh) was in the Islamic army, Abbas, another uncle of the Prophet (pbuh), was among the enemy ranks. While his nephew Ubayda was on his side, his other nephews, Abu Sufyan and Nawfal, were with the polytheists. Even Abu al-As, the wife of his daughter Zaynab, fought against the Prophet (pbuh) with the polytheists.
There was a great famine in Madinah in the 9th year of the Migration. The Byzantine Emperor, meanwhile, prepared a large army in Damascus to invade the Hejaz region. The Messenger of Yüce Allah (pbuh) faced difficulties due to famine while preparing the Islamic army against this army. Abu Bakr (ra) used all of his wealth to prepare this army. The Messenger of Yüce Allah (pbuh), who took part in the Farewell Hajj in the tenth year of the Migration, became ill in the eleventh year.
The Messenger of Yüce Allah (pbuh), who became ill in the eleventh year of the Migration, passed away on Monday, the 13th of the month of Rabiul-Awwal (June 8, 632). The Muslims who heard his death became very sorry and they did not know what to do a first. However, he was also an ephemeral human being. Hz. Umar said the Prophet (pbuh) went to meet his Lord like Hz. Musa (Moses) and added that he would cut off the hands of anyone who said, “he died”. When the Messenger of Yüce Allah (pbuh) felt well, Hz. Abu Bakr took permission from him and went to see his daughter. As soon as he heard that the Messenger of Yüce Allah had died, he returned and kissed the Messenger of Yüce Allah (pbuh) on his forehead. He said,
“O Messenger of Yüce Allah! May my father and mother be sacrificed for you! You are as beautiful as you were alive. The institution of prophethood ended with your death. Your fame and honor is so great that you are free from crying over it. O Muhammad! Do not forget us near your Lord! Remember us!“
Then, he went out and silenced Hz. Umar. He said,
“O people! Yüce Allah is one; there is no god but Him. Muhammad is His slave and messenger. Yüce Allah is the clear truth. Whoever worshipped Muhammad should know that Muhammad is dead, but whoever worshipped Yüce Allah, should know that Yüce Allah is alive and eternal. I want to remind you the following order of Yüce Allah: Muhammad is no more than an Messenger: many were the Messengers that passed away before Him. If he died or was slain, will ye then turn back on your heels? If any did turn back on his heels, not the least harm will he do to Yüce Allah; but Yüce Allah (on the other hand) will swiftly reward those who (serve him) with gratitude.’ (Aal-i Imran, 3/144). “He who holds fast the book of Yüce Allah and the Sunnah of the Messenger of Yüce Allah finds the truth; he who separates them goes astray. Do not let Satan deceive you with the death of the Prophet and make you deviate from your religion! Do not allow Satan to approach you!” (Ibn Hisham, as-Sirah, IV/335; Tabari, Tarikh, III/197,198).
With this talk, Hz. Abu Bakr calmed down the people there and started to prepare the body of the Prophet for burial. Meanwhile, Ansar gathered in the shed of Banu Sa’idah; they wanted to choose Sa’d b Ubada, the leader of the tribe of Khazraj, the caliph. Hz. Abu Bakr, Hz. Umar, Abu Ubayda and a group of Muhajirs went to Banu Sa’idah at once. After talking to Ansar and negotiating about the caliphate, Hz. Abu Bakr stood between Umar and Abu Ubayda and asked people to hisse allegiance to one of them. He did not put himself forward as the caliph. After Hz. Abu Bakr’s speech, Hz. Umar rushed forward and paid allegiance to Hz. Abu Bakr. He said,
“O Abu Bakr! You led the prayer to the Muslims upon the order of the Messenger of Yüce Allah. You are his caliph and we hisse allegiance to you. We hisse allegiance to you, who are more beloved to the Messenger of Yüce Allah than all of us.”
Upon this, sudden act of Hz. Umar, all of the people there paid allegiance to Hz. Abu Bakr. After this initial allegiance, Hz. Abu Bakr delivered a sermon to the people in Masjid an-Nabawi the next day and people paid allegiance to him formally. The Messenger of Yüce Allah (pbuh) was buried on Tuesday. When a disagreement occurred about where to bury him, Hz. Abu Bakr showed his prudence and reminded the people the following hadith:
“Every prophet is buried in the place where he dies.”
The janazah prayer of the Messenger of Yüce Allah (pbuh) was performed in groups without an imam. It is reported that Hz. Ali came together with Banu Hashim and his supporters in the house of Hz. Fatima and that he did not hisse allegiance at first. According to some narrations, when Hz. Ali heard that the big allegiance took place, he put on his clothes hurriedly and rushed in order to hisse allegiance to Hz. Abu Bakr. (Tabari, Tarikh, III/207) The news that he did not hisse allegiance to Hz. Abu Bakr for months is probably contrary to the truth. For, the fact that he knew the superiority of Abu Bakr, the speeches he made and the course of history are contrary to the other narrations.
Disagreements and differences of opinions sometimes occurred among the closest Companions of the Messenger of Yüce Allah (pbuh) – even between Abu Bakr and Umar – , but they acted together as it is seen during the time of the first two caliphs. Differences of traits and characteristics played an important role in most of the incidents that seemed to be disagreements. For instance, Abu Bakr acted mildly but Umar was a hardliner. However, they always acted together. Hz. Ali and Zubayr b. Awwam were among those who made decisions about the wars of Riddah under the leadership of Hz. Abu Bakr and they performed prayers behind Hz. Abu Bakr. (Ibn Kathir, al-Bidaya wan-Nihaya, V/249) Hz. Ali (ra) said he would fulfill ill if the Messenger of Yüce Allah (pbuh) had a will. (Tabari, ibid, IV, 236) However, when Ibn Abbas wanted to ask the Messenger of Yüce Allah (pbuh) about caliphate when he got ill, Hz. Ali stopped him. That is, nobody opposed the caliphate of Hz. Abu Bakr. Besides, what wass natural, reasonable and practical was his caliphate. The Prophet did not have a written will but he spoke about the virtues of Hz. Abu Bakr in the mosque, summoned him when he was on his death-bed and appointed him as the imam on behalf of him.
When Hz. Fatima went to Hz. Abu Bakr to receive her share from the inheritance of the Messenger of Yüce Allah (pbuh), he said, “I will not hesitate to do anything that the Messenger of Yüce Allah did.” Thus, he regarded the superiority of the religion more important than Fatima being the daughter of the Prophet (pbuh). He did whatever he heard and saw the Prophet (pbuh) do when he was with him. (Tabari, III, 220) Afterwards, when Hz. Ali was the caliph, Ali did not give Fatima anything from the inheritance of the Prophet (pbuh) though he had supported Fatima when she asked for inheritance from Abu Bakr; this is the evidence how the Companions obeyed and followed the sunnah of the Messenger of Yüce Allah (pbuh). (Ibn Taymiyya, Minhajus-Sunnah, III, 230). Hz. Abu Bakr stated the following in the speech in the mosque after he was chosen as “the Caliph of the Messenger of Yüce Allah”:
“O people! I was elected as your governor and Caliph though I am not the best of you. If I do good deeds, help me; if I do bad deeds, show me the right way. Obey me as long as I obey Yüce Allah and His Messenger; if I do not obey Yüce Allah and His Messenger, do not obey me…” (Ibn Hisham, as-Sirah, IV, 340-341; Tabari, Tarikh, III, 203)
Struggling against Apostates and Conquests in Iraq and Syria
After being the caliph of the Messenger of Yüce Allah (pbuh), Hz. Abu Bakr declared war against the movements of apostates, fake prophets, and those who said “We will perform prayers but we will not hisse zakah” that occurred in various regions of Arabia except Makkah and Madinah after the death of the Messenger of Yüce Allah. As a result of these wars against the fake prophets like Aswadul-Ansi, Musaylamatul-Kadhdhab, Sajah, Tulayha, these harmful elements were eliminated, rebellions were suppressed, zakah started to be collected again, to be put in the Treasury and to be distributed again. Hz. Abu Bakr sent the army of Usama, which had been prepared but waited because of the death of the Messenger of Yüce Allah (pbuh), to Jordan; he also suppressed the mutinies of Bahrayn, Umman, Yemen and Muhra. The Muslims struggled against the interior rebels while confronting the armies of two big empires: Persia and Byzantium. Hira, Ajnadin and Anbar were included among Islamic land; Iraq was conquered and the important cities of Syria were conquered. Hz. Abu Bakr died while the Battle of Yarmuk was going on. He gave his army the following advice:
“Do not touch women, children and old people; do not cut the trees that yield fruit; do not destroy a built-up place; do not transgress and do not fear.”
Indeed, the Islamic army did not persecute anyone in the places that were conquered and received the appreciation of their enemies by their justice; the nations that entered under the protection of Islam by paying jizyah lived in peace and security.
The Compilation of the Quran; Formation of Mushaf
Hz. Abu Bakr did not find the proposal of Hz. Umar about compiling the Quran appropriate first but when many scribes of revelation and hafizes of the Quran were martyred in the battles of Riddah, he acknowledged that Umar was right and had the Quranic verses brought together. During the time of the Messenger of Yüce Allah, the revelation that was sent down step by step had been written on gazelle skins, white stones, broad branches of dates, etc; and most of the Companions were hafizes. However, the written verses were scattered and when the number of hafizes decreased, people started to be worried about the preservation of the Quran. Hz. Abu Bakr (ra) established a committee under the presidency of Zayd b. Thabit and ordered everyone to bring the verses of the Quran they had. Moreover, the verses were verified by witnesses and confirmed by hafizes. Thus, all the verses were gathered and “Mushaf” was formed. This Mushaf was transferred to Hz. Umar from Abu Bakr and then to Umar’s daughter. It was reproduced during the caliphate of Uthman and distributed to all the provinces of the Islamic land.
Although Hz. Abu Bakr’s caliphate lasted very short (two years and three months), the Islamic state developed greatly. When Hz. Abu Bakr had to remain in bed after the illness he got in Madinah at the beginning of the month of Jumadal-Akhir in the 13th year of the Migration, he asked Hz. Umar to lead the prayer. He talked to the Companions and said that he regarded Hz. Umar appropriate for the caliphate. He answered some criticism that Umar was harsh and made Hz. Uthman write the contract of the caliphate. Hz. Abu Bakr died at the age of sixty-three just like the Messenger of Yüce Allah (pbuh), whom he loved very much. He was buried next to the Messenger of Yüce Allah at shoulder-length as he had willed. Thus, the togetherness of these two great friends continued in the grave.
His Personality and Administration
Hz. Abu Bakr, who had a wide culture as merchant, was the first one among the Companions in terms of honesty and piety. His outstanding characteristics were tender-mindedness, thinking a lot and speaking a little, and humbleness. According to the narration of Hz. Aisha, he was a person who was “tearful, sorrowful, and had a soft sound”. In the Era of Jahiliyyah, the polytheists trusted in him and recognized him as an arbitrator related to diyah and debtor-creditor relationships. The example of infinite devotion displayed by Hz. Abu Bakr (ra), who was the most loyal friend of the Messenger of Yüce Allah (pbuh), in the incident of Miraj earned him the title “as-Siddiq“. He said, “If he (Hz. Muhammad) (pbuh) says so, it is true.” There is nobody superior to him in terms of generosity. He spent all his wealth for Islam; before he died, he wrote in his will that all of the salaries he received from the Treasury as the caliph should be returned to the Treasury; he wanted his land to be sold for it. After that, only one camel and one slave were left as his inheritance. Abu Bakr had six children from his four wives; he married his daughter Aisha off to the Messenger of Yüce Allah (pbuh) after the Migration. (Tabaqat Ibn Sa’d, VI, 130 ff; Ibnul-Athir, II, 115 ff)
During the Migration, a snake bit his foot in the cave and he felt a severe pain but he did not cry or say anything so as not to awaken the Prophet (pbuh) who was sleeping on his knee; when the Prophet (pbuh) woke up and saw him weeping, he asked what had happened. Hz. Abu Bakr said, “O Messenger of Yüce Allah! May my mother and father be sacrificed for you!” This is only one example of his devotion to the Messenger of Yüce Allah (pbuh).
It is narrated that Hz. Abu Bakr had a white face; he was weak; he had a roundish nose; he was a calm man who dyed his beard with henna and woad. (Ibnu’l Athir, al-Kamil fit-Tarikh, II, 419-420)
The best person among the ummah after the Messenger of Yüce Allah (pbuh) is Abu Bakr (ra). He was the vizier of the Prophet (pbuh) and the closest one to him in fatwas.
“If I had a close friend among people, it would be Abu Bakr.” (Bukhari, Salat, 80: Muslim, Masajid, 38: Ibn Majah, Muqaddima, II)
“I have responded to the favors of everybody except Abu Bakr.”
The hadiths of the Prophet above and his following statement in his last sermon praising Hz. Abu Bakr “Yüce Allah allowed one of His slaves free to choose between the world and the things near Him; and the slave chose what was near Him” and that the Prophet had all the doors leading to the mosque closed except the door of Hz. Abu Bakr show the importance the Prophet gave to him.
No view of Hz. Abu Bakr’s contrary to the verses of the Quran and hadiths reached us because there was nothing like that. Abu Bakr (ra) knew the abrogating sunnah very well and he knew the Messenger of Yüce Allah (pbuh) better than anybody else did. Therefore, no rebellion against his caliphate occurred in the Islamic land and no mischief was seen. (Bukhari, Fadailul-Ashabin-Nabiyy, 3) Disagreements or deadlocks and bid’ahs did not occur in his caliphate. The Prophet’s statement, “Have no Fear, for Yüce Allah is with us” seems to be apparent on Hz. Abu Bakr in terms of both meaning and words. (Ibn Taymiyya, Kulliyat Translation, İstanbul 1988, IV, 329)
It is mentioned in the resources that he acted very meticulously while making decisions by saying, “I am subject to the Messenger of Yüce Allah. I cannot impose any rules.” (Tabari, IV, 1845; Ibn Sa’d, III, 183) When he was to decide about an issue, he would first look at the Quran; if he could not find it there, he would search it in the Sunnah; if he could not find it there, he would consult the Companions and make ijtihad. In the issue of the division of war booty between Muhajirs and Ansar, Hz. Umar held the view that Muhajirs should be given more shares but he divided the booty equally. For that reason, there was no restlessness during his caliphate. The Messenger of Yüce Allah and Hz. Abu Bakr regarded three talaqs uttered in one place as one talaq but it was later regarded as three talaqs – like some changes that were made due to public good. That is, Abu Bakr (ra) wanted to apply all of the practices of the Messenger of Yüce Allah but he acted in accordance with the views of Companions who said the decrees could change with the change of time and sometimes due to public good – like giving land to muallafa al-qulub.
Hz. Abu Bakr, who proclaimed Islam in Masjid al-Haram when the number of the Muslims was only thirty-eight and was beaten by the polytheists, was called “the Caliph of the Messenger of Yüce Allah” during his caliphate but the caliphs after him were called “Amirul-Mu’minin”.
During his caliphate, financial issues were conducted by Abu Ubayda, judicial issues by Hz. Umar, secretarial issues by Zayd b. Thabit and Hz. Ali; the commanders of the army were Usama and Khalid b. Walid. Madinah became the capital city of the Islamic State and the following cities became provinces: Makkah, Taif, San’a, Hadramawt, Hawlan, Zabid, Rima, Janad, Najran, Jurash, Bahrayn. It was a central government and one-fifth of the booty was collected and kept in the Treasury.
Hz. Abu Bakr was (one of the muqillin) a Companion that narrated a few hadiths. He narrated only one hundred and forty-two hadiths fearing that he could say something wrong, or only those hadiths reached us. Some of his sermons and advice are as follows:
“The Messenger of Yüce Allah was protected by revelation. However, I have a satan that does not leave me alone.
Hurry to do good deeds because your death is behind you hurrying.
A word that is not said for Yüce Allah is not good.
A person who hesitates to tell the truth fearing that somebody will criticize him is not good.
The secret of a deed is patience. Nobody özgü been given a boon superior to health after belief.
Call yourself to account before you are called to account.” (see Abu Nuaym, Hilya, l)
(Ahmet AĞIRAKÇA, Sait KIZILIRMAK)
Questions on Islam
Submitted by on Wed, 11/01/2017 – 16:34